Poster Session: Ebooks in the academic library

Ebooks in your academic library?

Collection Development Considerations

IST-511 Group 14

Teresa Bettis, Lisa Hoff, Cherie Prior, Kathryn Shanahan, Leo Stezano

EBooks in the academic library poster (courtesy of Teresa Bettis)

Our poster (courtesy of Teresa Bettis)

Libraries are increasingly adding ebooks to their collections. Since the specific needs of the students and faculty that make up the community served by academic libraries vary, the impact of incorporating ebooks within their collection should be considered.  First, the difference between print books and ebooks needs to be established.  “The obvious definition is that an e-book is an electronic book that can be read digitally on a computer screen, a special e-book reader, a personal digital assistant (PDA), or even a mobile phone. In other words, e-books are consumed on a screen rather than on paper.” (Nelson, 2008)  The libraries then need to weigh the benefits and the drawbacks of including ebooks in their collection development.

The benefits of ebooks within collection development

  • Ebooks improve patron service and are able to meet patron needs better than print books. Since they are electronic, ebooks offer better searching capabilities, allowing the patron to quickly search full texts using keywords. Patrons today are more accustomed to web services and are becoming increasingly reliant upon the internet. In a survey of undergraduates and postgraduates at several different universities, “Eighty per cent of the students used the web for studying and learning” (Bennett, 2005). Ebooks cater to these users. Ebooks also provide offsite access, allowing distance learning and remote students to use library materials.
  • Ebooks are more environmentally friendly than print books. As public awareness about environmental concerns increases, libraries are looking for ways to become greener. “Ebooks eliminate the need to cut down trees for paper and use fuel to produce the books and to transport them” (Poremba, 2008).  The library has an obligation to the community to reduce environmental impact.
  • Ebooks save physical space since they do not require a place on already crowded shelves.  A study done at MIT’s Barton library found that “lack of shelf space for books and journals” was a “serious impediment to study and research” that affected both students and faculty (MIT Faculty Committee, 2002).  Adding ebooks allows the collection to continue to grow without using up any additional space.
  • Ebooks are available very quickly and provide the most current information through automatic updates. For example, Oxford University Press is a publisher that provides updates for their electronic material. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, a 60 volume set, comes with “regular updates including new biographies, revisions, and features” (Oxford University Press, 2009). Also certain technologies are already outdated by the time the printed book is available for patron use.
  • Ebooks can save the library money.  Print books suffer from wear and tear due to physical handling which requires repair and eventual replacement. A survey of Academic Research Libraries (ARL) found that 3.2% or 70 million dollars of their combined annual expenditures was spent on preservation of circulating materials (Kenney, 2002).  The library will also spend less on shipping since eBooks are delivered electronically.

The disadvantages of ebooks on collection development

  • Ebooks are often bundled into large packages to be sold by vendors. Bundling results in a lack of quality since it often includes materials that the library wouldn’t normally collect. It also increases the quantity of titles the library is required to store. When the University of Worcester decided to add ebooks to its collection, it chose a vendor based on the “ability to buy individual titles instead of bundles” (Taylor, 2007).
  • Ebooks don’t have any established standards across the market.  There are many different user access models, and readers and patrons have a difficult time learning to use the different readers. The libraries also need to learn the different platforms and negotiate the various service terms offered by different vendors. “The greatest single barrier to uptake with regard to software and hardware is the lack of common platform for ebooks” (Bennett, 2005).
  • Ebooks exist as digital files which need to be stored and supported. “E-resources are more labor intensive than print. It was thought that reducing or eliminating check-in and binding of print journals would be effort save in an e-journal environment, but troubleshooting access and URL maintenance takes time and effort” (Armstrong, 2009).
  • The library is not always guaranteed perpetual access to ebooks that it has bought. “To support open research, libraries will need ‘ownership’ or ‘first sale’ rights that allow perpetual access and fair use.  The ability to manipulate an e-book collection easily to eliminate older editions is attractive where currency matters. In other disciplines where long-term research is essential, assurance of perpetual access will be vital” (Snowhill, 2001). The recent example where Amazon deleted George Orwell’s 1984 from customers’ Kindles only intensifies this concern.
  • EBooks can cost the library more money. Most ebooks cost as much as or more than the list price for cloth print books. For example, the cloth edition of Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Technologies is listed for $175. The ebook version of this same title is listed for $175, $189, and $262.50 depending on which ebook aggregator supplies it to the library. The library will also have to pay for server and tech support if it wants to host the ebooks itself or pay to have the vendor host them. In 2007, an ARL survey of 118 libraries found that the libraries spent 160 million dollars combined on hardware and software for e-resource support (Association of Research Libraries, 2008).
Our group at the poster session (courtesy of Teresa Bettis)

Group 14 (courtesy of Teresa Bettis)

Acknowledgements: Special thanks to Brian McLaughlin, Acquisitions Supervisor at Syracuse University’s E. S. Bird Library for his valuable insights into some of the difficulties collection developers face with ebooks.

Reference List

Armstrong, K., Nardini, B., McCraken, P., Lugg, R., Johnson, K.G. (2009). When did (e)-books become serials? The Serials Librarian, 56(1-4), 129-138.

Association of Research Libraries. (2008). ARL statistics 2007-08. Retrieved from http://www.arl.org/stats/annualsurveys/

Bennett, L., & Landoni, M. (2005). E-books in academic libraries. The Electronic Library, 23(1), 9-16.

Bettis, T., Hoff, L., Prior, C., Shanahan, K., & Stezano, L. (2009). Informal interview with Brian McLaughlin, Academic Acquisitions Supervisor, Syracuse University.

Dinkelman, A., & Stacy-Bates, K. (2007). Accessing e-books through academic library web sites. College & Research Libraries, 68(1), 45-58.

Kenney, A. R., and Stam, D. C. (2002). The state of preservation programs in American college and research libraries: building a common understanding and action agenda. Retrieved from http://www.clir.org

MIT Faculty Committee on the Library System. (2002). MIT Libraries: meeting critical needs for the 21st century. Retrieved from http://libraries.mit.edu/

Nelson, M. R., (2008). E-books in higher education: nearing the end of the era of hype?, EDUCAUSE Review, 34(2), Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/er

Oxford University Press. (2009). Oxford dictionary of national biography. Retrieved from http://www.oup.com/oxforddnb/info/news/

Pace, A. K. (2004, September), E-books: round two, American Libraries, Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/ala/alonline/

Poremba, S. M. (2008). Take a look at today’s vibrant ebook market. Econtent, 31(2), 32-37.

Snow, L. (2001). E-books and their future in academic libraries. D-Lib Magazine, 7(7/8), 1-10. Retrieved from  http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july01/snowhill/07snowhill.html

Sprague, N., & Hunter, B. (2006). Assessing e-books: Taking a closer look at e-book statistics, Library Collections, Acquisitions, and Technical Services, 32(3-4). 150-157.

Taylor, A. (2007). E-books from MyiLibrary at the University of Worcester: a case study. Program: Electronic Library & Information Systems, 41(3), 217-226.

IST-511 Day Five: School’s out for Summer

Today was the last day of class. We had some time in the morning to talk about networking and school libraries, then the poster session took place in the afternoon. I have already talked about the importance of netwroking when I discussed my interview with Jon Cawthorne, so I won’t go into any detail here. I will concentrate on the afternoon events: the poster presentation. My group chose to present the benefits and disadvantages Ebooks present for  collection development in the academic library.

This was my first poster session. In fact, because I grew up in Uruguay, where the shool systems is understandably different from what we typically see in the US, I can only remember doing anything emotely related once: science fair in 9th grade, my first year in the country. Overall, I found it to be a very effective way to give and receive tons of feedback, and a great way to find out how confident you are in your knowledge of a topic. Unlike a typical group presentation, the interactions are much more interactive, and they tend to be one-on-one. Instead of having to answer five questions from a mostly-friendly audience (it is much more difficult to really question a classmate’s work when you are doing it in front of a large group,  not to mention the fact that you know the roles will be reversed soon enough), you have to hold a a series of short conversation about your topic in a much more intimate setting. The questions are more numerous, more focused, and much more incisive. This means you find out quickly enough how much you really know about your topic. In addition, you have no idea who you might be talking to at any particular moment in time. I remember having an animated conversation with one woman who, it turns out, was Elizabeth Liddy, Dean of the iSchool. I also had the “fortune” to be on call when Scott Nicholson, our professor, stopped by (to my credit, I did recognize him right away). After three days of insisting that the point of the project was to present a controversy without taking a side, he walked up and asked me what I thought would happen with Ebooks in the next five years. This seems (now) like a logical question; at the time, after three days (and nights) of striving to remain fair and balanced, it felt like a personal batrayal, if only for a moment. I have to say these poster presentations keep you on your toes.

After my turn on “defense,” it was time for me to roam and learn about the various issues my classmates had decided to present. I have to say, having sparred with Dr. Nicholson made a significant difference in my approach to this part of the event. I thought, if he gets to ask , nasty, unepxpected, out-of-the-box questions, then why can’t I? Isn’t challenge the best path to real learning? So off I went, trying my best to find something about other posters that I felt was missing or underdeveloped, and probing in that direction. I ended up having some interesting discussions that never would have happened had I just stuck to the information presented on the posters, everyone was very gracious about my approach, and no one broke into my room later that night to exact revenge, so I strongly recommend this tack.

And that was IST-511. I think I will give myself one more day of reflection before posting final thoughts on the course as a whole, and for those of you that are just dying to find out all about Ebooks in academic libraries, I will add another entry with the contents of our group’s handout (and a picture of the poster, if I can get one before tomorrow).

IST-511 Day Four: The perils of librarianship

Today began with a discussion of professional organizations, followed by a panel discussion on library space. This last item was of great interest to me, given that it is one of the issues that the two most important academic libraries in San Diego are focusing on at the moment. I was interested to hear the speakers’ thoughts not only on physical space, but also on the need to define a library’s virtual presence. Academic libraries are especially concerned with the non-physical aspects of space because they primarily serve a population that, because of age constraints, tends to expect information transactions to take place virtually.

In the afternoon, we discussed the ethics of the profession. The lecture touched on the many gray areas that a librarian can run into by just doing his or her job, situations where the librarian code of ethics can clash with other standards: personal, social, corporate, religious, political. I learned much about the importance of policies, As much as I dislike bureaucracy, I see the importance of having a clearly written, widely communicated set of policies, so that when one of these nebulous situations happens, a librarian has something concrete to fall back on to justify the decision made. Like many people, I tend to see bureacracy as something an organization’s staff hides behind in order to avoid difficult decisions, but after that lecture I have an increased appreciation for the value of being able to back your actions with something more substantial than “because I think it is the right thing to do.”

IST-511 Day Three: The truth about eBooks

I spent much of today working on the poster project. We have a topic: what the growth in eBook publication means for collection development in academic libraries. I’ll talk about pros and cons later on this week, so as not to give away any spoilers. After some frantic source consultation and some good teamwork, we have a draft of the handout that goes with the poster (so that people who don’t get a chance to ask any questions can take away some additional information). Tomorrow is actual poster design, and Friday is the big unveiling.

In class, we had a talk about library systems, followed by a panel on the same topic. I found the discussion informative and inspiring. Hearing about all the different fiefdoms that make up the systems world brought out my techie and organizational sides, and I spent a good portion of the morning with half a brain focused on the presentations, and the other half on several ideas about how I would go about improving the situation. Today, I ruminate. Tomorrow, who knows?

The afternoon was spent getting to know some crucial pieces of Bird Library: the book conservation/restoration operations and the special collections space. Professor Lavender gave a great talk on collections, showing us some truly impressive pieces that belong to the library (anything from pieces of an Assyrian cuneiform clay tablet from about 4,000 years ago to an art project created by an SU student about her grandparents’ experiences in Auschwitz). I especially liked the stories behind each item’s acquisition, which were not only entertaining, but provided valuable insight into the why and how of collection-building. I think one of the best aspects of this course has been the glimpses it provides into all the various aspects of Library Science. I’m still focused on academic and digital topics, but it’s always good to know what your various career choices are within a field, and it’s always good to have some insight into what other members of my future organization will be doing.

IST-511 Day Two: Copyright law and science fair flashbacks

I find nothing gets people going early in the morning like a good copyright law discussion. This is going to be dificult to beat for the title of “scariest lecture of the week.” It is one thing to vaguely know that copyright is an extremely complicated issue that is very much a hot topic these days; it is quite another to sit in a class for two hours and have the instructor point out, about once every five minutes,  the various ways in which your work, school, and leisure activities could potentially violate federal law. This is a topic that deserves much more attention than a paragraph in a daily recap; all I can say at this point is that there is a great divide between the laws that govern copyright (many of which have been passed to satisfy the needs of the entertainment industry rather than any concerns having to do with scholarship or education) and the layperson’s understanding of what is and isn’t a copyright law violation.

We also began working on our group projects; I will be posting more about this in the coming days. Our group is trying to come up with a workable topic centered on eBook adoption by libraries. The final result of this project is a poster that highlights two sides of a controversial issue for discussion; the posters are then taken to an exhibition hall where they are displayed and fellow students, professors and guests can ask follow-up questions about the material. Basically, it’s  librarian science fair.

IST-511 Day One: The basics and information retrieval

I confess I am having a little trouble with this blogging assignment; write one or two paragraphs each day about your experiences. It sounds easy enough, but these are no ordinary days. We are earning four credits in seven days, which means each day we learn about two weeks’ worth of material. How do I summarize that in a few lines? If I mention everything that happened, it’s hard to accurately convey a true representation of any one activity or lecture. If I concentrate on one experience, I leave many important things out altogether.

Today was the first day of the LIS Gateway course. This is a smaller group whose interests, in theory at least, relate a bit more closely to my own. It is also a “smaller” class: less of the 50,000 foot view, more of the dirty everyday business of being a librarian, or at least a library graduate student. We learned the basics about our course of study over the next few years; we discussed the information information life cycle; and we went over our graduation requirements and optimal course scheduling.

We also actually met some real-life librarians. To me this was the highlight of the day. I was told after listening to them speak about public libraries (today’s topic) I would want to become a public librarian myself. This did not happen. I still prefer the academic and digital sides of the profession, when I’m not thinking about what it would take to become a library school instructor. Now there’s a group that seems to be having fun. What I took away from today’s guests was not how great public libraries are (and they are great), but the joy that comes from following one’s passion. This has been a common theme so far this trip, as well as in talking to various people back home who are connected to librarianship. These are people who seem to really enjoy what they do, no matter the roadblocks and annoyances in their way. They seem energized and excited by their work, and they seem eager to share that energy and that excitement with those around them.  This was what I was looking for when I decided to pursue an MLIS degree: a career I could be passionate about. I’m starting to think I may actually have made the right choice.

Of course, tomorrow we spend the morning talking about copyright law. We’ll see how I feel after that.

IST-601: Innovation, innovation, innovation

It’s Sunday night, and I just finished my first MLIS credit. Over the last 30-odd hours we used a mixture of lectures, games, group work to explore the concepts of innovation and change, both within libraries and in the outside world.

We were told this class has changed a great deal since last summer, and as it was taught this weekend it was a great introduction to the MLIS program for various reasons. First, the emphasis on class participation, interactivity, and team exercises provide students a chance to get to know one another quickly, a must for those of us that who may never be in the same room with a member of our cohort again. Second, the class is team-taught by four faculty members, plus there is a special guest appearance by a fifth professor; this allows the students to experience a cross-section of teaching styles at the iSchool. Third, the graded assignments are a great opportunity to learn first-hand about the academic standards and expectations within the program. Last, but certainly not least, the topic chosen, innovation and change, lets us know that we are not just here to learn the Dewey system and become proficient with reference databases; we are here to acquire the tools and skills to go out into the world and make a difference.

At the end of class today,we were asked to think of a few things we learned over the weekend. Here is my list:

  • It takes a lot of hard work to bring about meaningful change, but it IS possible.
  • Sometimes circumventing the rules is not just a possibility, but a necessity.
  • A paper clip can serve many functions, but some of them are not possible unless you straighten it out and bend it in different ways.
  • There is no right way to communicate an idea. Always know your audience.
  • The MLIS program isn’t just a degree, or the gateway to a profession, or a great way to spend $4o,000; it is a mission.